One problem in the marine aquarium hobby is Dinoflagillates. These are jelly-like, brown formations that settle on all surfaces of a Marine Aquarium, including Corals.
Dinoflagellates are toxic, and eating them often leads to the death of snails and other animals, which provokes even more water pollution and the development of Dinoflagellates.
Dinoflagillate outbreaks often occur in Aquariums with a low pH (below 8.0 during the day) and an imbalance of Nitrate and Phosphate, or none, in conditions of high levels of nutrients and Trace Elements in the water.
Dinoflagillates are photosynthetic, so one of the methods to deal with them is to completely turn off the lights and darken the Aquarium for 3-4 days, but this method is not acceptable for a Coral Aquarium and gives only a temporary result.
You can Fight Dinoflagellates using chemicals, which are in large quantities on the market, and this method also does not completely defeat Dinoflagellates, since it does not remove the Cause of Dinoflagellates.
But the most effective way is a complex method of struggle, which includes: Chemical and Biological methods of exposure and adjustment of the Aquarium lighting spectrum.
In order to effectively deal with Dinoflagillates, you must follow the following scheme exactly:
1. It is necessary to return the low level of pH to the value of 8.2 and above during the daytime and keep the pH at night not lower than 8.0. The main reason for the appearance of Dinoflagellate is the low pH. Use a CO2 Scrubber and "Buffer". DO NOT raise the KH above 8,5 with "Buffer" because this will reflect badly on the health of the Coral SPS.
2. Dinoflagillates thrive in full spectrum light, so it is advisable to keep only the blue and violet spectra for the duration of the Fight against Dinoflagillates.
3. Dinoflagillates thrive on high levels of Nutrients and Trace Elements in the water, so dosing of these substances should be completely discontinued for the duration of the Fight against Dinoflagillates.
4. Dinoflagillates develop faster at low pH, so you need to turn on the Skimmer at full power and bring its air intake tube to the street.
Feed the Fish as little as possible, don't feed Corals at all, and don't dose Amino Acids and Carbon, as this encourages increased growth and development of Dinoflagillates.
5. Dinoflagillates do not like strong water flow, so you need to increase the Water Current and increase the water exchange of the Display and SAMP. Install filter bags or a Fleece Filter, for the duration of the Fight against Dinoflagillates, they will filter the Dino out of the water.
These measures will create very poor conditions for the development of Dinoflagillates and make them the most vulnerable to Chemical Control.
We recommend using Dino X from Fauna Marine.
With the exact implementation of all the above rules, usually 2-3 doses of Dino X are enough for every second day.
It is necessary to dose at night after the complete switching off of the lighting in the Aquarium.
After the complete disappearance of Dinoflagellates, wait another 1 day and start using Activated Charcoal within 48 hours, this is enough to remove the remnants of the Dino X preparation and remove the toxins of the Dead Dinoflagellate.
Common mistakes when dealing with Dinoflagillates:
1. Never change the water at all times during the fight against Dinoflagillates and within a week after defeating the Dino, as freshly salted water contains silicates, Trace Elements and Nutrients that promote the Development of Dinoflagillates.
If you have been using Tropic Marin's All for Reef, then for the duration of the Dinoflagillate Fight and one month after the Dino Defeat, you will need to switch to the Сlassic Balling Method or Calcium Reactor, as Tropic Marin's All for Reef contains many nutrients and trace elements that promote the development of Dinoflagillates.
2. Do not feed your Fish too Nutritious Foods. Feed the Fish in small quantities to prevent the food from sinking to the bottom and always rinse frozen food before feeding it to the Fish.
In no case do not dose iron, as it, as Antiphos, contributes to sharp Dips in Phosphates, which provokes the development of Dinoflagillates.
Do not allow sharp drops in Nitrate and Phosphate and their near-zero values. Approximate, desired parameters Nitrate 20, Phosphate 0.2 for the entire duration of the Fight against Dinoflagillates.
Remember, the main cause of Dinoflagillates is interruption of the Nitrogen Cycle due to zeroing of Nitrate, Phosphate or both, this leads to the appearance of Dino and a decrease in pH. To keep the Nitrogen Cycle going, keep Nutrient levels stable through Nutrient dosing or the amount of Fish and Feed.
We are told about the upcoming problems by the decrease in pH and ORP parameters over several days, which indirectly indicate a violation of the Nitrogen Cycle.
We do not recommend using Live Phytoplankton to control Dinoflagellates as recommended by some growers as it may contain uneaten Phytoplankton fertilizer.
These fertilizers contain a lot of Phosphates and Metals which are very Toxic to the Corals and can lead to the Death of the Corals.
Gradually return to the previous mode:
We turn on the full spectrum of Aquarium Lighting for 2 hours a day, increasing it by one hour every other day, until you return to the previous values.
Dosing of Trace Elements begins a week after the end of the course of using Dino X. The first 5 days, the dose is 30% of the maximum dose, gradually adjusted to the normal dose over 2-3 weeks.
The first water change should be done 7 days after the last dose of Dino X.
We gradually return everything to normal and every day we carefully check the Aquarium for the presence of Dinoflagellates. At the first sign of Dino appearing, it is necessary to reduce Aquarium Lights again, add a control dose of Dino X at night, reduce the amount of food and stop dosing Micronutrients.